Hummingbird Migration in Pennsylvania

When do hummingbirds arrive in Pennsylvania?

Pennsylvania’s 7 migrating hummingbirds begin arriving in early April and continue north to their preferred nesting area, somewhere near their own birth.
The last of the spring migrating hummingbirds are gone by mid-June, however, many will stay in Pennsylvania for the rest of the summer.

Beginning their northern journey from as far away as Panama, or as close as Mexico, migrating hummingbirds arrive in Pennsylvania in early April, some late migrators may arrive as late as mid-May, but by the end of June, all hummingbirds that are migrating further than Pennsylvania are gone from Pennsylvania.

The first migrating hummingbirds will be males followed by the females about a week later. The males arrive first to stake out the territory that they will defend as they try to attract a female.

Ruby-throated hummingbirds, by far the most commonly seen in Pennsylvania, will probably be the first migrating hummingbirds to be seen in Pennsylvania.

Keep your eye out for the brightly colored gorget of the male, the females will start showing up at your feeders about a week later.
See my article: How to Identify a Hummingbird’s Gender in 4 Easy Steps

Hummingbirds starting their spring migration from Panama need to fly about 4,528 miles (if they choose to stay over landmass) or 2,149 (if they choose to fly over the Gulf of Mexico) to reach Pennsylvania.

Hummingbirds starting their journey from Mexico need to fly 1,897 miles (from the Mexican border at Brownsville Texas to Philadephia) to reach Pennsylvania.

Are there hummingbirds that live in Pennsylvania year-round?

There are no hummingbird species that live in Pennsylvania year-round, however, the Calliope, Allen’s, Rufous, and Black-chinned hummingbirds have been documented as being seen in the middle of winter.

These wintering hummingbird sightings in Pennsylvania are reported by the Valley Forge Audubon Society.

Male Calliope Hummingbird
Photo by: sony_alpha_male
Male Allen’s Hummingbird
Photo by: inthewildwithrick
Male Rufous Hummingbird
Photo by: Kevin Walsh
Male Black-Chinned Hummingbird
Photo by: sony_alpha_male

Hummingbirds are much more cold tolerant than one might expect.
According to eBird.org, some banded hummingbirds have been documented in temperatures of -9 degrees Fahrenheit with a wind chill of -36 degrees Fahrenheit.

What are the most common hummingbirds seen in Pennsylvania?

The most common hummingbirds seen in Pennsylvania are the Ruby-throated and Rufous hummingbirds.
On average, out of 10,000 hummingbird sightings in Pennsylvania, 9,881 will be Ruby-throated and 822 will be Rufous hummingbird sightings.

Hummingbird Pennsylvania sightings from the most to the least seen.

Year-Round:Out of 10,000Out of All
None
Seasonal:
Ruby-throated9,88198.8%
Rufous8220.61%
Vagrant/Rare
Allen’s270.27%
Anna’s160.16%
Calliope90.09%
Black-chinned70.07%
Bahama WoodstarLess than 10.004%

These number of sightings are at the time of posting this article.
See current sighting numbers for Pennsylvania by clicking the links below:
Ruby-Throated current sightings in Pennsylvania
Rufous current sightings in Pennsylvania
Allen’s current sightings in Pennsylvania
Anna’s current sightings in Pennsylvania
Calliope current sightings in Pennsylvania
Black-chinned current sightings in Pennsylvania
Bahama Woodstar current sightings in Pennsylvania

Ruby-throated
Rufous

What hummingbirds breed and nest in Pennsylvania?

The Ruby-throated hummingbird is the only hummingbird that breeds and nests in Pennsylvania.

See Ruby-throated breeding map

The entire reason for northern migration, much like salmon swimming upstream to their place of birth to lay eggs, is to return to the area where they were born. There the female builds a nest, mates, and raises a family.

Once the female hummingbird reaches the breeding grounds the focus turns to building a nest and then finding a partner with which to mate.

Female hummingbirds prefer building nests 10 to 20 feet off the ground in deciduous trees.

It will take her between 5 and 7 days to construct the nest of materials such as plant down, moss, and fine plant fibers, decorated with lichens and held together by spider webs.
See my article: Hummingbird Parents: (Mating to Nesting)
See my article: Baby Hummingbirds: (Egg to Fledgling)

Each species of male hummingbird has its own unique mating dance ritual of courtship to attract a female. They do perfectly choreographed dives and dance maneuvers to attract a flirty female.
See my article: Hummingbird Dance: 5 Interpretive Explanations

There is no penetration during the mating ritual as male hummingbirds do not have any external sexual organs.

The hummingbird mating process only lasts for approximately 3-5 seconds while the cloacae (kloh-ay-see) of both hummingbirds are pressed together in what is called the “Cloacal Kiss” (kloh-a-coal kiss).

After the Cloacal kiss, the female must begin building the nest immediately.

Hummingbirds usually lay 2 eggs per brood, one each on consecutive days.

Most hummingbirds have 2 broods per year, but depending on migration timing and day-length time in their nesting destinations, some hummingbirds can have more than 2 broods per year.

In Pennsylvania, nesting hummingbirds usually have 2 broods per year but some may have time to work in a third brood.

When should I put up my hummingbird feeders in Pennsylvania?

Pennsylvania hummingbird enthusiasts should put out hummingbird feeders in late February to attract the earliest arriving migrating hummingbirds.
Some hummingbird enthusiasts leave feeders up all year for the cold tolerant hummingbirds that may over-winter in Pennsylvania, or for the old or injured unable to migrate.

Male hummingbirds will be the first to arrive followed by female hummingbirds about a week later.

Migrating hummingbirds will continue to arrive until about mid-June.
Hummingbirds seen in Pennsylvania after mid-June will be hummingbirds that will spend their entire summer in Pennsylvania.

Be sure to fill your hummingbird feeders with good quality nectar solutions, making your own feeder nectar is best.
See my article: Forget Commercial Hummingbird Food, Try Making Homemade Nectar
See my article: The One Thing You Need to Eliminate From a Hummingbird’s Diet

How long do hummingbirds stay in Pennsylvania?

Pennsylvania’s migrating hummingbirds will start arriving in late February and most will be gone in October.
Some Allen’s, Calliope, Rufous, and Black-chinned have been documented in Pennsylvania during winter, but most will migrate south for the winter.
No hummingbird species live in Pennsylvania year-round.

Hummingbirds are much more tolerant than most people believe.
According to eBird.org, some banded hummingbirds have been documented in temperatures of -9 degrees Fahrenheit with a wind chill of -36 degrees Fahrenheit.

Some migrating seasonal hummingbirds choose to over-winter in Pennsylvania and those too old or injured to migrate will be the only likely hummingbirds Pennsylvanian hummingbird enthusiasts will see during the winter.

The most likely migrating hummingbird that might choose to spend the winter in Pennsylvania would be the very cold tolerant Rufous hummingbird.

The Valley Forge Audubon Society reports wintering sightings of the Allen’s, Calliope, Rufous, and Black-chinned hummingbirds in Pennsylvania.

Hummingbirds have exceptional memories and will remember every flower or feeder they visited during the spring migration and will return to those nectar sources on their return to southern migration in the fall.
See my article: Hummingbird Adaptation and Remarkable Ability to Locate Food

The most common hummingbirds Pennsylvanians will see during the hot summer months will be the Ruby-throated hummingbird with the Rufous hummingbird being a distant second.

When the obstacles of the summer heat are difficult to manage and unbearable, finding ways to keep your hummingbirds happy and hydrated with cool nectar can be critical.
See my article: How to Help Hummingbirds in Hot Weather

When do hummingbirds leave Pennsylvania?

Pennsylvania’s migrating hummingbirds begin leaving the state in early September, and by late October they have migrated to their over-wintering areas in Mexico and Central America.
No hummingbirds live in Pennsylvania year-round.

Most of Pennsylvania’s migrating hummingbirds are gone by the end of October but a few stragglers might stay until the end of the year.

A few older hummingbirds will be the first to start the fall migration, maybe as early as late August, depending on their strength and energy, with the youngest hummingbirds finishing the fall migration by mid-November.

The oldest hummingbirds will be the first to start migration according to an article from the University of Southern Mississippi.

This elongated migration time frame ensures late straggling migrants have enough food available to fuel their bodies before making the long taxing migration south for the winter.

Some migrating hummingbirds Pennsylvanians will possibly see during the winter are migrating hummingbirds that are too old or injured to migrate.

Hummingbird migration is triggered by the circadian (internal daily clock) and the circannual (yearly internal clock) rhythm.

Changes in the weather, temperature, time of the season, the decline in the food supply, and decreased amount of sunlight because of shortening days are all factors that trigger an individual hummingbird’s instinct to migrate.

As with spring migration, male hummingbirds are the first to begin the southern migration in the fall. The female migrating hummingbirds will begin their southern fall migration as soon as they have completed raising their offspring to the ability to migrate themselves.

When should I take down hummingbird feeders in Pennsylvania?

The best time to take down hummingbird feeders for the winter in Pennsylvania is mid-to-late November or when no hummingbirds have been seen at the feeders for a couple of weeks.
Some Pennsylvanians leave feeders up all winter to feed the rare winter hummingbirds and those too old or injured to migrate.

The dilemma hummingbird enthusiasts struggle with every year is whether to leave the hummingbird feeders up all year or take them down during the winter.

Some Pennsylvania hummingbird admirers leave hummingbird feeders up all winter long to provide life-nourishing nectar to Pennsylvanian’s most likely rare winter visitors, the Allen’s, Calliope, Rufous, and Black-chinned hummingbirds.

Most Allen’s, Calliope, Rufous, and Black-chinned hummingbirds will not spend the winter in Pennsylvania and will decide to migrate south to Mexico for the winter.

The selfless act of keeping hummingbird feeders up all winter also provides nectar to other migrating species unable to migrate because of injury or old age.
See my article: 11 DIY Ways to Keep Hummingbird Nectar From Freezing
See my article: Should I Keep My Hummingbird Feeder Out During the Winter?

Hummingbird enthusiasts that leave hummingbird feeders up all winter provide much-welcomed nutrition for late migrators and hummingbirds too old or injured to migrate.

Hummingbirds are much more tolerant of cold temperatures than most people realize.

According to eBird.org, some banded hummingbirds have been documented in temperatures of -9 degrees Fahrenheit with a wind chill of -36 degrees Fahrenheit.
See my article: 3 Reasons Why Hummingbirds Are Banded

Taking hummingbird feeders down mid-winter during episodes of below-freezing temperatures could be fatal to hummingbirds depending on these winter-time feeders.
See my article: 11 DIY Ways to Keep Hummingbird Nectar From Freezing

How long does it take a Pennsylvania hummingbird to migrate?

It takes a Pennsylvania hummingbird about 63 hours of flying at its average migrating flight speed of 30mph to fly from Pennsylvania to the most distant Mexican border 1,897 miles away.
Hummingbirds migrating to Panama 2,149 miles across the Gulf of Mexico or 4,528 over land, will need to fly 150 hours.

Some fly at a relaxed distance as slow as 1 hour per day, others fly up to 500 miles non-stop in about 20 hours as some do while migrating across the Gulf of Mexico.

Hummingbirds do not migrate in flocks as do other migrating birds.
Hummingbirds migrate individually on their own personal time clock.

This staggered migration pattern ensures resources are not consumed and depleted all at one time.

As migration approaches, hummingbirds routinely gain 25% to 50% of their body weight by consuming increased quantities of nectar from feeders and flowering plants as well as catching an increased quantity of bugs mid-air for protein.

This increase in body fat helps fuel the hummingbird on its long migration journey.

Expect to see an increased volume of southern migrating hummingbird visitors to your feeders in Pennsylvania during this fall migration from September through October.

The hummingbirds that visited your feeders during the spring migration will remember exactly where your feeder is located and will most likely revisit that same feeder on their way to their over-wintering area in Mexico and Central America.
See my article: Hummingbird Adaptation and Remarkable Ability to Locate Food

Where do Pennsylvania hummingbirds go in the winter?

Pennsylvania’s Ruby-throated, Rufous, Allen’s, Calliope, and Black-chinned hummingbirds travel south to over-winter in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.
Anna’s over-winter in upper Mexico and California.
Bahama Woodstar over-winters in the Caribbean Islands.

All hummingbirds have excellent memories and can remember every flower or feeder they visited during spring migration and will return to those locations along their migration pathway year after year.

Some hummingbirds have been documented returning to a feeder for a couple of years after it was removed.
See my article: Hummingbird Adaptation and Remarkable Ability to Locate Food

See my article: Hummingbirds Found in Pennsylvania: (Pictures and Sounds)

Happy Hummingbird Watching!

Male Ruby-Throated Hummingbird
Photo by: Rekha Pawar

Elizabeth Donaldson

Hi Everyone! I have always been fascinated and amazed by the skill, strength, and beauty of hummingbirds. I hope this article answered your questions.

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